There’s been considerable buzz over Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) recently, which is understandable given the benefits of automating the provisioning and management of infrastructure resources through code. With IaC, organizations do not have to manually go over a web console to set and oversee resources. Everything can be configured in code for rapid deployment.
However, implementing IaC is by no means a cinch. Organizations that are considering the automation of their infrastructure resource provisioning through code should expect challenges. This is not to discourage those who are yet to embrace IaC. The goal of the discussion here is to encourage the right mindset when implementing Infrastructure-as-Code.
Idempotence is a crucial goal in computer programming. It is about being able to reapply code several times without changes in the outcomes. It entails consistency, replicability, and scalability. These are particularly important attributes in Infrastructure-as-Code, especially in the context of automation and templating. However, achieving idempotence can become challenging for a number of reasons.
One cause of difficulties in infrastructure code becoming idempotent is the improper management of resource dependencies. It is not uncommon for changes in resources to happen, and these changes can affect others. There is no straightforward way to anticipate these changes, so it is important for developers to ascertain that they are systematically managed. It is advisable to have a dependency register as well as a dependency map and dependency analysis process.
Just like the changes in dependencies, it can also be challenging to aim for idempotency in dynamic and rapidly changing environments. In these scenarios, configurations and resource requirements can change rapidly. As such, everything should be properly accounted for before the code is finalized.
On the other hand, conditional logic can compromise idempotency in cases when an operation’s results are not solely based on the operation itself. The results can be affected by external factors because of conditional logic that has not been thoroughly validated. For example, in cases when conditional logic introduces state-dependent behavior, idempotency would be difficult if the operation’s behavior is affected by how it was executed in the past. Also, operations that need a specific order would fail to achieve idempotency if there is conditional logic involved.
Additionally, data persistence can create problems for idempotency. Operations that make use of various data used in multiple processes and with outputs shared with other processes must be carefully examined. Changes in the data used can influence outcomes and it is also possible for data corruption to take place.
Moreover, collaborations can also make it challenging to produce a code that can be reapplied and achieve consistent outcomes. Multiple team members working on different components of the infrastructure can complicate efforts to achieve idempotency. Even with just one team member messing up, the resulting code will no longer produce the desired consistent results.
To address these hurdles, it is vital for organizations to come up with a systematic workflow and adopt best practices. It is important to implement robust documentation and version control. Automated testing and continuous monitoring should also be part of the routine to ensure that idempotency issues are detected early and addressed accordingly.
Complexity of abstraction
Another hurdle in implementing IaC is the lack of proficiency in abstracting infrastructure components. In infrastructure-as-code, configurations and other details need to be translated into code, which is read by machines for automated implementation. Those who are new to IaC may have to go through some learning periods to become adept not only in turning configurations or resource provisioning instructions into code but also in keeping alert monitoring of changes to make sure that these changes do not cause unintended outcomes and impair the replicability of the code.
To help improve abstraction skills, it helps to become more proficient in the use of variables and parameters. It is also advisable to modularize or break down infrastructure code into small reusable components – for example, having separate modules for database setup, network configuration, and app deployment. Additionally, it would be useful to be observant of code patterns, since they can serve as guides in structuring the code and resolving common challenges. Also, it is important to maintain comprehensive documentation to make it easier to comprehend abstraction layers and stay on track with the code’s target functionality and usage.
Challenges in state management
State management refers to the monitoring of state information across different environments. The primary goal of this is to find outdated or inconsistent state information and resolve it to avoid unintended consequences that adversely affect the infrastructure’s reliability, stability, and security.
One example of such undesirable state information is the existence of unintended resource duplication, which can result in unnecessary costs and possible conflicts. Another example is errors related to resource deletions. These happen when outdated state information erroneously indicates that specific resources are no longer existent, hence the possibility of IaC scripts wrongly deleting the said resources. Moreover, inconsistent state information can lead to configuration drift or the divergence of actual infrastructure deployment from the intended configuration as defined in the IaC.
These are just a few of the negative effects of inconsistent state management. It is crucial to pay attention to this possible pitfall of IaC implementation. Some organizations tend to downplay the role of state management or may not even have an inkling of the impact of inconsistent and outdated state information on their infrastructure.
Bringing IaC to existing systems and workflows may face viability concerns because of possible incompatibilities or integration issues. Organizations that continue to use legacy infrastructure will have a hard time modernizing with IaC and not abandoning their old systems. IaC needs to integrate into all processes, from CI/CD to security solutions, system administration, and notification tools. The lack of integration or the resistance to it can quickly spell doom for IaC.
Also, integration is not just about equipment and software. People in an organization can be the source of integration problems. It is important for organizations that are embracing IaC to complement the effort with education or training to bring everyone on the same page, highlighting the benefits of and the problems solved by IaC.
The cloud shroud
This is not exactly a challenge but more of a discouraging event for some who recklessly embrace IaC. There are instances when development teams produce an IaC with costly consequences. The code may be causing the organization to bleed financially because of the lack of optimization and monitoring for cloud computing costs. Organizations that do not regularly keep track of their costs may be shocked to find out that they have already accumulated an unnecessarily hefty bill because of the poorly designed IaC.
The cloud is already becoming a staple of modern organizations but some may be overlooking it when it comes to IaC-driven costs. It is important to examine the financial side of IaC to make sure that it does not only work, but should work efficiently and securely. By the way, security issues can also entail serious costs, so it should be a primary concern in IaC implementation.
To be clear, adopting IaC is not that different from inevitable IT concerns such as cybersecurity. As one paper suggests, “IaC is not an overly difficult technology to learn, but it requires an investment of time and resources due to its complexity.” Overcoming the challenges of IaC implementation is not some gargantuan task that only those who have unlimited resources can achieve. With proper planning and coordination, organizations can embrace Infrastructure-as-Code, achieve idempotency, and reap the benefits of automating infrastructure configuration and resource provisioning with replicability, scalability, and minimal errors.